Peru has more bird species than any nation on earth except Colombia, and stands at the top of the international birder's agenda. Its varied geography and topography, and its wildernesses of so many different life zones, have endowed Peru with the greatest biodiversity and density of birds on earth (see accompanying story). About 1780 bird species occur in Peru; 18.5% of all bird species on earth, and 45% of all Neotropical birds. For ornithologists, it doesn't come more exciting than this - eight species new to science have been discovered in Peru in recent years; four of them so new they have not yet been given scientific names. Unlike other top-ranking Neo-tropical birding destinations, such as Ecuador and Costa Rica, Peru has vast tracts of forest and wilderness untouched by civilization; two-thirds of the Manu Biosphere reserve, for example, is completely unexplored. If you are new to Neo-tropical birding, Peru's potential can be daunting; a four-week trip can produce over 750 species, and some of the identifications can be tricky! Unfortunately, there is no single field-guide that covers all the birds of Peru, and some species are not illustrated anywhere. However, taking a combination of a few books (see Guide Sheet) will ensure that 90% of your sightings can be identified. All of Peru's birding sites cannot be covered in the space available here, but the following will give a taste of what this country has in store.
One of the most convenient and spectacular places to visit on arrival in Lima. About three hours south of the capital, Paracas is a paradise for inshore birds of the Humboldt Current. The Pisco marshes are crowded with herons and waders, and the surrounding grassy fields hold specialties such as Dark-faced Ground Tyrant, Tawny-throated Dotterel and Peruvian Thick-knee. On the adjacent rocky coastline of Lagunillas, surfbirds abound during the northern winter and Surf Cinclodes can be seen searching amongst the seaweed. The mudflats of Paracas Bay host thousands of North American waders, especially during the northern winter, and Chilean flamingoes during the northern summer. The nearby Ballestas islands are a nesting site for thousands of sea birds. Almost all of these are Humbolt Current specialists, and they include the dazzling Inca Tern and Peruvian Booby. During the boat ride, many pelagic (offshore) species are possible, including albatrosses, petrels and shearwaters. This makes a great introduction to Peruvian birding. The local seafood is fantastic, too!
About 90 kms. north of Lima, and a convenient place for a day-trip (e.g. while awaiting an evening international flight). This small reserve, holding several important species, is typical loma habitat, a type of vegetation formed during the winter months by dew falling from the coastal fog banks. It is home to the endemic Raimondi's Yellow-finch and Thick-billed Miner.
An area of high Puna grass- and bog-land, about four hours drive east of Lima along the central highway. This is high-altitude birding at its extreme: a giddy 4,500 m.a.s.l. Take it easy here, and drink lots of fluids. Besides regular high Andean species such as ground-tyrants, seed-snipes and sierra-finches, the main reason for birding here is twofold: the Diademed Sandpiper, a rare, almost mythical wader of the mineral-rich marshes, and White-bellied Cinclodes, perhaps the prettiest and one of the rarest of the furnarids.With luck, both can be seen here. Other highlights include Giant Coot on the lake at Marcapomacocha, and the smart black-breasted Hillstar, a hummingbird endemic to Peru. Along the Central Highway from the Marcapomacocha turn-off, the well-paved road continues another 120 kms. to Lake Junin, where, with prior arrangement, it is possible to hire a boat to see the endemic Junin Flightless Grebe. This lake is also a fantastic place to see all the highland waterbirds and raptors, and the surrounding fields abound with sierra-finches and ground-tyrants. A further 180 kms. along the highway brings you to Huánuco. This is thebase for exploring the Carpish Tunnel area. About one hour's drive northeast of Huánuco, the road passes through the Carpish range, and birding either side of the tunnel can be very productive. Powerful Woodpecker, Sickle-winged Guan and large mixed feeding flocks appear out of the mist in the epiphyte-laden cloud-forest.
Situated in the central Andes, Huaráz (eight hours drive northeast of Lima) is the starting point for excursions. From this base, it is possible to explore the more remote areas of the mountains, such as the lakes of Llanganuco, where, in the surrounding high Andean woodlands, many little-known and interesting birds can be seen. Here, a search may produce that rare mistletoe specialist, the White-cheeked Cotinga, or the endemic Plain-tailed Warbling Finch, whilst a check on the skyline will surely produce an Andean Condor soaring against the breathtaking backdrop of 6,000 ms. snow peaks. Three or four days in this area will produce a wide variety of both grassland and woodland species.
Starting at the coastal city of Chiclayo, a tough but rewarding trip can be made into the deep Marañon valley and its environs. On this route, some of the most sought-after and spectacular of Peru's birds can be found - legendary species such as the Marvellous Spatule-tail, Marañon Crescent-chest, Long-whiskered Owlet, and Buff-bridled Inca Finch, to name but a few. Many of the species on this circuit have been seen by only a handful of ornithologists.
From this city it is possible to visit a number of rainforest lodges. Some of these are very touristy, but nonetheless good for birds. For the birder, some lodges stand out above the rest: Cumacaeba Lodge,Explorama and ExplorNapo These lodges are quite expensive but very comfortable. ExplorNapo has an excellent canopy walkway, which is superb for observing tree-top birds. Both lodges are excellent for Amazon birds, especially for the many species that are not seen south of the Amazon river and for river island specialities. The Allpahauayo-Mishana Reserve just outside Iquitos City holds some very rare recently discovered species.
Most visitors to Peru visit the southeast of the country, attracted principally by the archaeological sites of the Inca civilization, and the city of Cusco is the starting point for trips in this area for birder and non-birder alike. Nearby Machu Picchu is the major tourist destination - and a nightmare for lovers of peace and solitude. However, the bamboo stands surrounding the ruins provide excellent opportunities for seeing the Inca Wren! Also, a walk along the tracks near the railroad station can produce species which are difficult to see elsewhere such as Sclater’s Tyrannulet and Oleaginous Hemispimgus; this is the place in Peru to see White-capped Dipper and Torrent Duck. From the town of Ollantaytambo, on the way to Machu Picchu, it is only two hours drive to one of the most accessible native Polylepis woodlands in the Andes, whilst the humid\ temperate forest of Abra Málaga is only 45 minutes further on. In the polylepis, some very rare birds can be located without too much difficulty, including Royal Cinclodes and White-browed Tit-spinetail (the latter being one of the ten most endangered birds on earth). The humid temperate forest is laden with moss and bromeliads, and mixed species flocks of including multi-colored tanagers are common.
This is probably the most pristine conservation unit in the world! The reserve itself is over half the size of Switzerland, and much of it is completely unexplored. Un-contacted Amazonian peoples still inhabit the upper reaches of Manu's forest. The variety of birds is astounding; the reserve holds over 1,000 species - significantly more than the whole of Costa Rica and over one tenth of all the birds on earth. Large mammals such as Jaguar, Giant Otter and Andean Bear also occur at maximum population levels. Access to Manu is strictly limited, and only authorized operators can take visitors into the reserved zone. However, there are adjacent areas where one can see all the Manu bird specialties and an astounding variety of other wildlife. A typical trip into Manu starts in Cusco and takes in the wetlands at nearby Huacarpay, where a variety of Andean waterfowl and marsh birds are abundant. Here the endemic and beautiful Bearded Mountaineer Hummingbird can be seen feeding on tree tobacco. Then the route proceeds to the cloud forest of the eastern Andean slopes. Trees are then continuous from the tree-line at 3,300 m.a.s.l. down in to the Amazon basin, and on to the borders of Brazil and Bolivia. Driving slowly down through the cloud forest, every 500 ms. loss of elevation produces new birds. This is the home of the Andean Cock-of-the-Rock, and a visit to one of their leks (courtship sites) is one of the world's great ornithological spectacles. There are also two species of quetzal here; in fact, these humid montane forests are home to a mind-boggling variety of multi-colored birds; a mixed flock of tanagers, honeycreepers and conebills can turn any tree into a Christmas Tree! The last forested foothills of the Andes level out into the upper tropical zone, a forest habitat that elsewhere has disappeared, to be replaced by tea, coffee and coca plantations. In Manu the forest is intact, and special birds such as the Amazonian Umbrellabird, and Blue headed and Military Macaws can be found. A good base for upper tropical birding and an introduction to lowland Amazon species is the Amazonia Lodge, on the Alto Madre de Dios river, about 9 hours drive from Cusco, without birding stops. From here, transport is by river. The beaches are packed with nesting birds in the dry season; Large-billed terns scream at passing boats and Orinoco Geese watch warily from the shore. Huge colonies of Sand-colored Nighthawks roost and nest on the hot sand. As you leave the foothills and reach the untouched forests of the western Amazon, you enter jungle with highest-density of birdlife per square km. On earth. But beware! - sometimes it seems as if there are fewer birds than in a European woodland; only strange calls betray their presence - until a mixed flock comes through, containing an astonishing 70-plus species; or a brightly colored group of, say, Rock Parakeets dashes out of a fruiting tree. For the birder who craves the mysterious and rare, this is the site. This forest has produced the highest day-list ever recorded on earth, and it holds such little-seen gems as Black-faced Cotinga and Rufous-fronted Ant-thrush. Antbirds and furnarids creep in the foliage and give tantalizing glimpses until, eventually, they reveal themselves in a shaft of sunlight. To get to this forest is difficult and expensive, but the experience is well worth it. A trip to Manu is one of the ultimate birding experiences, and topping it off with a macaw lick is a great way to finish; hundreds of brightly colored macaws and other parrots congregate to eat the clay essential to their digestion in one of the world's great wildlife spectacles.
This area is accessible via the Tambopata river. A number of jungle lodges offer excellent lowland rainforest birding, providing a reasonable alternative for those who do not have the time or money to visit Manu.
The best birding route is the road to Laguna Salinas, a large salt lake which regularly holds three species of Flamingo (Chilean, Andean and Puna). Andean Avocet and Puna plover are also common here. Between Arequipa and the lake, birding the polyepis-clad slopes and arid scrub can produce various earthcreepers and canasteros not found elsewhere, and this is one of only two locations for the Tamarugo Conebill. A highlight of this region is the Cruz del Condor, at the end of a long, dusty drive from Arequipa into the Colca, the world's deepest canyon. This viewpoint overlooks a spot where condors roost and in the mornings they soar upwards on the thermals, passing startled observers at point blank range.
This is a just brief look at some of the birding hotspots of Peru. There are many more. Some are easy and cheap to reach, some are difficult and expensive, but there is something for everyone. A great three to four-week combination is about 16 days in Manu, then two or three days in the highlands at Abra Málaga and two or three days at Huascarán Reserve. A trip into the Marañon valley instead of Manu allows access to some of the most sought-after endemics, but many fewer species overall. Apart from the world's best birding (and as we all know, birding is just an excuse to get us to wild and wonderful places), Peru is just a great place to be. It has unsurpassed scenery, a magnificent history, friendly people, and good food - and the beer is not bad, either!